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Types of Cheese

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HARD PRESSED CHEESES:

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MIMOLETTE

Mimolette                                      

Origin: Savoie Region

Cheese Group: Hard Pressed, uncooked

Milk Type: Cow Milk.

Strength: Medium

Taste: Fine, Nutty

Fat Content: 40%


Mimolette cheese is of both French and Dutch origin, and is similar in some ways to Edam cheese in taste. In appearance it is quite different — it has a carrot to dark orange-colored flesh, depending upon the degree to which the cheese is aged. Mimolette is from the French word mimou which means partially soft, but the cheese when aged, is actually fairly hard, similar in consistency to Edam. It’s also called Boule de Lille, named after a cellar in Lille where the cheese may first have been made in France.

The French did not begin to make Mimolette cheese until the 1600s. A restriction on imports from Holland was the likely reason why the French began making Mimolette cheese on their own, rather than relying on imports from Holland. You’ll find Mimolette cheese made in Holland and that made in France today, particularly in the region of Brittany. This cow’s milk cheese can be aged anywhere from six months to two years, and it is stored in a moist environment. It’s turned once a week and begins to develop a hard crater like surface, comparable to the moon’s surface. The craters are actually the result of cheese mites that begin to eat into the cheese as it ages.

 


Raclette

Raclette                       

Origin: Savoie Alps Region

Cheese Group: Hard Pressed, uncooked

Milk Type: Cow Milk.

Strength: Medium

Taste: Fine.    

                                  

Its name comes from the French word "racler" which means to scrape, and describes the way the cheese is traditionally prepared and eaten: the cheese is melted in front of a fire/raclette grill and the melted part cheese is scraped off ("raclé") on to boiled potatoes. Raclette dates back to Roman times when it was used as a form of money exchanged for other essential goods. Local farmers have passed the methods of production down through the generations. It is also mentioned in medieval writings as a particularly nutritious meal consumed by peasants in the Alps. Traditionally, the cow herders used to take the cheese with them when they were moving the herds to or from the pastures. In the evenings they would place the cheese next to the fire and, when it had reached the perfect softness, scrape it on top of some bread.

It is also used in the traditional fondue de Savoie. It is during the long ripening period that the flavor and excellent melting qualities develop. The cheese is made in the form of a wheel, weighing about 15 pounds. Serve with Cotes du Rhone, or Beaujolais, or Sancerre or Muscadet for the whites.



Gruyère

Gruyère                                                                                                

Origin: North France or Switzerland

Cheese Group: Hard Pressed, uncooked

Milk Type: Cow Milk.

Strength: Strong

Pasteurised: No

Texture: hard

Aging time: 5-12 months (typical)


Gruyère is sweet but slightly salty, with a flavour that varies widely with age. It is often described as creamy and nutty when young, becoming with age more assertive, earthy and complex. When fully aged (five months to a year) it tends to have small cracks which impart a slightly grainy mouth feel. Gruyère cheese is generally known as one of the finest cheeses for baking, having a distinctive but not overpowering taste. In quiche, Gruyère adds savoriness without overshadowing the other ingredients. It is a good melting cheese, particularly suited for fondues, along with Vacherin and Emmental. It is also traditionally used in French onion soup, as well as in croque-monsieur, a classic French toasted ham and cheese sandwich. Gruyère is also used in chicken and veal cordon bleu. It is a fine table cheese, and when grated, it is often used with salads and pastas. It is used, grated, atop le tourin, a type of garlic soup from France which is served on dried bread. White wines, such as Riesling, pair well with Gruyère. Sparkling apple cider and Bock beer are also beverage affinities.

 


Emmental

Emmental                                                                                    

Country of origin: Switzerland

Region, town: Berne, Emmental

Source of milk: Cows

Pasteurised: Traditionally, no

Texture: Hard

Aging time: 2-14 months depending on variety


Emmental or Emmentaler is a cheese from Switzerland. It is sometimes known as Swiss cheese. The cheese originally comes from the Emme valley in the canton of Bern. Unlike some other cheese varieties, the denomination "Emmentaler" was not protected ("Emmentaler Switzerland" is, though). Hence, Emmental of other origin, especially from France and Bavaria, is widely available and even Finland is an exporter of Emmental cheese. Emmental is a yellow, medium-hard cheese. It has a savoury, but not very sharp, taste. In cooking, it is often put on top of gratins, dishes which are then put in the oven to let the cheese melt and become golden-brown and crusty. It is also used for fondue, in which case it is blended with Gruyère cheese.



Manchego

Manchego                                                                                                 

Country of origin: Spain

Region: La Mancha

Source of milk: sheep

Texture: Firm and compact

Aging time: min 60 days, max 2 years


Manchego (officially Queso Manchego) is a cheese made in the La Mancha region of Spain from the milk of sheep of the Manchega breed. Official Manchego cheese is to be aged for between 60 days and two years. Manchego has a firm and compact consistency and a buttery texture, and often contains small, unevenly-distributed air pockets. The colour of the cheese varies from white to ivory-yellow, and the inedible rind from yellow to brownish beige. The cheese has a distinctive flavour, well developed but not too strong, creamy with a slight piquancy, and leaves an aftertaste that is characteristic of sheep’s milk.

Manchego has variety of different flavours depending on its age. There are three versions of maturity sold:

Fresco – the fresh cheese is aged for only 2 weeks, with a rich but mild flavour. Produced in small quantities, it is rarely found outside Spain.

Curado is a semi-firm cheese aged for three to six months with a sweet and nutty flavour.

Viejo, aged for one year is firm with a sharper flavour the longer it is aged and a rich deep pepperness to it. It grates well but can also be eaten on its own or as tapas.

 


Murcia al Vino

Goat Cheese in Wine (Murcia al Vino).            

Country of origin: Spain

Region: La Murcia

Source of milk: Goat

Texture: Firm and compact

Flavor: Creamy, salty with wine aroma

Ageing : 45 days


Goat  cheese in wine “Queso de Murcia al Vino” is a fatty goats’ milk cheese from the province of Murcia in the south-east of Spain. It has a Protected Designation of Origin. The cheese is made only from unpasteurized goats’ milk of the Murcian breed from registered herds. The term al vino refers to the washing of the rind with red wine during maturation. The cheese is presented in cylinders

The cheese has an agreeable creamy flavour, a slight saltiness and a mild aroma. Murcian wine cheese is coloured white to light cream and has a compact and elastic texture. The colour of the red wine baths does not permeate into the cheese. There are a few small cavities throughout the cheese. As with many harder Spanish cheeses it is eaten sliced as a snack with beer or wine, or else as part of a meal with fruit or nuts.

 

 

SEMI-HARD CHEESES.

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Gouda Cheese

Gouda Cheese                                                         

Country of origin: Netherlands

Region, town: South Holland, Gouda

Source of milk: Cows

Pasteurised: Yes

Texture: Semi-hard

Aging time: 1-36 months  

      

The cheese is named after the city of Gouda in the Netherlands, but its name is not protected. However, the European Commission has confirmed that "Gouda Holland" is to be protected (although "Gouda" itself is not). Cheese under the name of Gouda is currently made and sold all around the world.    

The cheese is from cultured milk that is heated until the curds separate from the whey. Some of the whey is then drained, and water is added. This is called "washing the curd", and creates a sweeter cheese, as the washing removes some of the lactic acid. About ten percent of the mixtures are curds, which are pressed into circular molds for several hours. These molds are the essential reason behind its traditional, characteristic shape. The cheese is then soaked in a brine solution, which gives the cheese and its rind a distinctive taste. The cheese is dried for a few days before being coated with a yellow coating to prevent it from drying out, then it is aged. As it ages, it develops a caramel sweetness and sometimes has a slight crunchiness from salt-like calcium lactate or tyrosine crystals that form in older cheeses. After 12 months of aging, amino acid (tyrosine) crystals start to form and gives the Old Gouda Cheese its particular taste and flavour. 

           

 Montasio         

Montasio                                                                         

Country of origin: Italy

Region, town: North  Italy provinces of Udine, Pordenone, Gorizia and Trieste.

Source of milk: Cows

Pasteurised: Yes

Texture: Semi-hard

Aging time: 2-10 months        

Montasio is a semi-hard, cooked-curd cheese made exclusively with cow's milk harvested in the area of production. it is available in three varieties:

- Fresco (fresh), which has been aged between 60 and 120 days

- Mezzano (semi-aged), which has been aged between 5 and 10 months

- Vecchio or Stagionato (aged), which has been aged over 10 months.

Montasio's flavour profile changes according to the degree of aging. When eaten fresh, it has a mild, creamy flavour which recalls that of the milk with which it was produced. Montasio Mezzano has a deeper, fuller flavour, while Montasio Stagionato is intensely flavoured with a hint of sharpness, perfect for consumers who prefer big, bold tastes. Montasio's paste is characteristically uniformly peppered with small holes ("eyes"), all of the same shape and shiny on the inside ("partridge eyes"). Fresh Montasio has a smooth, elastic, and compact light brown rind, with a firm white or straw-yellow paste. As the cheese ages, the rind becomes drier and the paste granular and crumbly. Montasio can be identified by marking of origin - the caption "Montasio" written diagonally on the side. Montasio that has been aged for more that 100 days and is free from all imperfections is fire branded by the Consortium's commission with an additional mark of quality. The side also indicates the date of production and the producer's identification code.         

 


 Provolone                                                         

Provolone                                                          

Country of origin: Italy

Region, town: Southern Italy

Source of milk: Cow-Cattle

Pasteurised: Depends on cow variety

Texture: Semi-hard

Aging: At least 4 months


The term Provolone (meaning large Provola) appeared around the end of the 19th century, when it started to be manufactured in the Southern regions of Italy, and this cheese assumed its current large size. The smaller sized variant is called Provola and comes in plain and smoked ("Affumicata") varieties.

Provolone is a semi-hard cheese with taste varying greatly from Provolone Piccante (sharp/piquant), aged for a minimum of four months and with a very sharp taste, to Provolone Dolce (sweet) with a very mild taste. In Provolone Piccante, the distinctive piquant taste is produced with lipase (enzyme) derived from goat. The Dolce version uses calf's lipase instead.



SOFT CHEESES.

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CAMEMBERT

Camembert                                                 

Origin: Normandy Region

Cheese Group: Soft, Bloomy-rind cheeses

Milk Type: Cow ‘s Milk.

Strength: Medium

Taste: Fresh, lightly acidic, ripe, fruity, mushroom flavored

Fat Content: minimum 45%

Aged: 6 weeks


The Camembert is one of France’s most famous cheeses. According to legend, this famous cheese was invented during the French Revolutiom by a farmer, Marie Harel, who developed the Camembert in 1791 together with a priest, whom she hid on her farm. Napoleon III was an admirer of Camembert and served it at his court. In 1880 the engineer Ridel had the idea to wrap the cheese in a box of thin wood, allowing it to be sent on journeys and even exported. The pâte should be creamy yellow, supple, and give slightly to the finger pressure. There should be a light smell of mold, and the taste is salty. Uncooked, unpressed, soft pâte, rind of white mold peirced by red stains. Affinage of a minimum of 21 days...

 


LIVAROT

LIVAROT                                                        

 

Origin: Normandie Region

Cheese Group: Soft Washed-rind cheeses

Milk Type: Cow ‘s Milk.

Strength: Strong

Taste: Herb, lightly acidic

Fat Content: minimum 45%

Aged: 3 weeks


This cheese is named after a village in Normandie. Its nickname is the Colonel because it is bound with straps of rush or paper reminiscent of a colonel's stripes. The rind is washed and colored with annatto, and sticks to the fingers. The ripe pâté has no elasticity and feels heavy and moist on the tongue. It dissolves in the mouth, with a spicy flavour, close to that of hung meat. Affiance takes at least three weeks, during which time the cheese is washed in water or light brine and turned regularly. Cow milk, moist, washed rind, soft pâté, uncooked, unpressed...

 

 

 Crottin de Chavignol

Crottin de Chavignol                            

Origin: Loire Valley

Cheese Group: Goat Cheese

Milk Type: Goat’s Milk

Strength: Medium

Taste: Soft-ripened, crumbly

Fat Content: 45% - Aged: 2 weeks

Weight: 30g


Crottin de Chavignol is the most famous goat cheese of the many varieties produced in the Loire Valley. This cheese is the claim to fame for the village of Chavignol, France, which has only two hundred inhabitants. The small cylindrical goat cheese from the area around Chavignol has been produced since the 16th century, but it wasn't until 1829 that it was first written about. The etymology is dubious: the word "Crot" described a small oil lamp made from burned clay, which resembles the mold used to prepare the cheese. Another explanation is that old "Crottin" gets harder and browner and tends to look like dung.

It is a little salty and the balance of sourness, sweetness, and the smell of milk enhance the taste. Affiance of two weeks, thin rind of blue or white mold; sometimes no mold, soft white or ivory-colored pâte; uncooked, unpressed...

 

 

SAINTE MAURE DE TOURRAINE

Sainte Maure De Tourraine                       

Origin: Loire Valley

Cheese Group: Goat Cheese

Milk Type: Goat’s Milk

Strength: Medium

Taste: Nutty and slightly salty taste

Fat Content: 45% - Aged: 10 days

Weight: 250g – Length: 16-17cm Diameter: 3 cm


Sainte-Maure de Touraine is a French cheese produced in the region of Touraine, mainly in the department of Indreet- Loire. It is named after the small town of Sainte-Maure-de-Touraine, in the department of Indre-et-Loire, near Chinon. The cheese is taken out of the mold and a long straw is inserted, the purpose of which is to hold the fragile cheese together and ventilate its interior. The cheese is then covered with salted powdered charcoal and laid on a board to complete drainage. Affiance takes minimum of ten days, usually, two to four weeks.

This cheese is mature, balance, round, with salt, sourness and an aroma of walnuts... (White or ivory, fine textured pâté, uncooked, unpressed; ring of natural mold, sometimes covered with powdered charcoal)....

  



BLEU DAUVERGNE

Bleu D’Auvergne                         

Origin: Auvergne

Cheese Group: Blue Cheeses

Milk Type: Cow Milk

Strength: Medium

Taste: Spicy, Nutty, and Strong

Fat Content: 50% - Aged: months

Size: Diameter: 20cm – High: 9cm – Weight: 2 to 3 kg


Bleu d'Auvergne is of relatively recent origin, discovered in the mid-1850s by a French cheese maker named Antoine Roussel. Roussel noted that the occurrence of blue molds on his curd resulted in an agreeable taste, and conducted experiments to determine how such veining could be induced. After several failed tests, Roussel discovered that the application of rye bread mold effectively created the veining, and that pricking the curd with a needle, by providing for increased aeration, could allow the mold to enter and encourage its growth. His discovery and techniques then quickly spread throughout the region. Bleu d'Auvergne has a strong and pungent taste, but to a lesser extent than other blue cheeses; it is less salted, with a creamier and more buttery taste and a moister texture. Some recipes also use a weaker form of mold, Penicillium glaucum, to create the blue veins, rather than the Penicillium roqueforti used in Roquefort and other blue cheeses. Twenty to twenty five litre of milk are needed to do the one cheese.

 


ROQUEFORT

Roquefort                   

Origin: Languedoc Roussillon

Cheese Group: Blue Cheeses

Milk Type: Sheep’s Milk

Strength: Strong

Taste: Ewe’s milk Flavour, tangy, salty, strong

Aged: 4 to 9 months

Fat Content: 52%

Size: Diameter: 25 cm - High: 10cm – Weight: 2.5 to 3kg


It has a clean, forceful flavour with strong salt, very different from the sweetness of milk. The pâte is damp and crumbly and should be cut with a pre-warmed knife. The cheese melts in the mouth, leaving an amazing flavour of mold and salt. It is rich and spicy and is best eaten at the end of a dinner. In 1961 Roquefort could only be classed as true if they were ripened in the natural caves of Mont Combalou in the commune of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon. Full AOC granted 1979, following the original law of 1925.

With Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best-known blue cheeses. The cheese is white, crumbly and slightly moist, with distinctive veins of blue mold. It has characteristic odor and flavour with a notable taste of butyric acid; the blue veins provide a sharp tang. The overall flavour sensation begins slightly mild, then waxes sweet, then smoky, and fades to a salty finish. It has no rind; the exterior is edible and slightly salty as each kilogram of finished cheese requires about 4.5 litres of milk, Roquefort is high in fat, protein and minerals, notably calcium.

 


Gourmandise

Gourmandise                                                    

Origin: South France

Milk Type: Cow’s Milk

Strength: Medium

Taste: Soft flavour with nuts or fruit adds on.

 

Gourmandise, this soft, buttery textured French cheese, available in two flavour varieties, offers a very distinctive taste experience. It is exceptional in combining a delicate and smooth cheese paste with crunchy walnuts or aromatic cherries.

Made from cow's milk, this spreadable processed cheese is a unique blend of aged cheeses (Gruyere and Cheddar), and cream, with a hint of added flavours. One type is flavoured with walnut and is excellent with pears and other winter fruits, or even accompanied by blue cheeses. The other type is infused with kirsch, the clear brandy distilled from cherries and their pits and used in making fondue, and black forest cake. Gourmandise varieties are most commonly served as dessert cheese; a true delicacy especially when served with dessert wines like Sherry or Port or well chilled champagne.

Read 3006 times Last modified on Monday, 07 December 2015 08:15

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